Estonian Grammar

The Estonian grammar allows you to manipulate the vocabulary to obtain multiple forms of a word. The grammatical rules below are the most important in Estonian and help connect words or shape the structure. We start with the prepositions:

And: ja  Audio Under: all  Audio
Before: enne  Audio After: pärast  Audio
Inside: seespool  Audio Outside: väljaspool  Audio
With: koos  Audio But: aga  Audio
For: jaoks  Audio From: juurest  Audio
To: kuni  Audio In: sees  Audio


Questions and Adverbs

To ask questions, use the following:

What?: mida?  Audio Who?: kes?  Audio
How?: kuidas?  Audio Why?: miks?  Audio
Where?: kus?  Audio

Some of the most important time adverbs:

Never: mitte kunagi  Audio Rarely: harva  Audio
Sometimes: mõnikord  Audio Usually: tavaliselt  Audio
Always: alati  Audio Very: väga  Audio


Most commonly used pronouns in Estonian:

I: ma  Audio You: sa / teie  Audio
He: tema  Audio She: tema  Audio
We: meie  Audio They: nad  Audio

To express the possession of something [possessive form]:

My: minu  Audio Your: sinu, teie  Audio
His: tema  Audio Her: tema  Audio
Our: meie  Audio Their: nende  Audio

Grammar in a sentence

Some random verbs to show how it's being used:

I speak English: ma räägin inglise keelt  Audio
You speak French: te räägite prantsuse keelt  Audio
He speaks German: ta räägib saksa keelt  Audio
She speaks Italian: ta räägib itaalia keelt  Audio
I visited France: ma käisin prantsusmaal  Audio
I will drink milk: ma joon piima  Audio


Some extra grammatical structures:

I understand you: ma saan teist aru  Audio
I don't understand you: ma ei saa teist aru  Audio
I don't speak French: ma ei räägi prantsuse keelt  Audio
This is my house: see on minu maja  Audio
That restaurant is far: see restoran on kaugel  Audio
No problem: pole probleemi  Audio

The above Estonian grammar can provide tools to use in coordination with the Estonian vocabulary to obtain some popular Estonian phrases.

Estonian Phrases

Estonian Vocabulary


Did you know? Grammar can help you increase your vocabulary dramatically. Grammar is like a tool which helps you manipulate words in a sentence by changing the shape and location of a word to create something new out of the old one.