Esperanto Grammar

The Esperanto grammar allows you to manipulate the vocabulary to obtain multiple forms of a word. The grammatical rules below are the most important in Esperanto and help connect words or shape the structure. We start with the prepositions:

And: kaj Under: malsupre de
Before: antaŭ After: post
Inside: en Outside: ekster
With: kun But: sed
For: por, pro From: de, el
To: al, por In: en


Questions and Adverbs

To ask questions, use the following:

What?: kio? Who?: kiu?
How?: kiel? Why?: kial?
Where?: kie?

Some of the most important time adverbs:

Never: neniam Rarely: malofte
Sometimes: foje, kelkfoje, fojfoje Usually: kutime
Always: ĉiam Very: tre


Most commonly used pronouns in Esperanto:

I: mi You: vi
He: li She: ŝi
We: ni They: ili

To express the possession of something [possessive form]:

My: mia Your: via
His: lia Her: ŝia
Our: nia Their: ilia

Grammar in a sentence

Some random verbs to show how it's being used:

I speak English: mi parolas la anglan
You speak French: vi parolas la francan
He speaks German: li parolas la germanan
She speaks Italian: ŝi parolas la italan
I visited France: mi vizitis francio
I will drink milk: mi trinkos lakton


Some extra grammatical structures:

I understand you: mi komprenas vin
I don't understand you: mi ne komprenas vin
I don't speak French: mi ne parolas la francan
This is my house: ĉi tiu estas mia domo
That restaurant is far: tiu restoracio estas fora
No problem: senprobleme

The above Esperanto grammar can provide tools to use in coordination with the Esperanto vocabulary to obtain some popular Esperanto phrases.

Esperanto Phrases

Esperanto Vocabulary


Did you know? Grammar can help you increase your vocabulary dramatically. Grammar is like a tool which helps you manipulate words in a sentence by changing the shape and location of a word to create something new out of the old one.