Mongolian Grammar

The Mongolian grammar allows you to manipulate the vocabulary to obtain multiple forms of a word. The grammatical rules below are the most important in Mongolian and help connect words or shape the structure. We start with the prepositions:

And: ба, болон  [ba, bolon] Audio Under: доор  [door] Audio
Before: өмнө   [өmnө] Audio After: дараа  [daraa] Audio
Inside: дотор  [dotor] Audio Outside: гадна  [gadna] Audio
With: -тай  [ -taĭ] Audio But: гэхдээ  [gekhdkhee] Audio
For:   [ -d] Audio From: -аас  [ -aas] Audio
To: рүү  [rүү] Audio In: дотор  [dotor] Audio


Questions and Adverbs

To ask questions, use the following:

What?: юу?  [yuu?] Audio Who?: хэн?  [kheen?] Audio
How?: хэрхэн?  [kheerkheen?] Audio Why?: яагаад?  [yaagaad?] Audio
Where?: хаана?  [khaana?] Audio

Some of the most important time adverbs:

Never: хэзээ ч  [kheezkhee ch] Audio Rarely: цөөхөн  [tsөөkhөn] Audio
Sometimes: хааяа  [khaayaa] Audio Usually: ихэвчлэн  [ikheevchkheen] Audio
Always: үргэлж  [үrgelzh] Audio Very: маш, их  [mash, ikh] Audio


Most commonly used pronouns in Mongolian:

I: би  [bi] Audio You: та  [ta] Audio
He: тэр (эрэгтэй)  [kheer (ekheegkheeĭ)] Audio She: тэр (эмэгтэй)  [kheer (ekheegkheeĭ)] Audio
We: бид  [bid] Audio They: тэд  [kheed] Audio

To express the possession of something [possessive form]:

My: миний  [miniĭ] Audio Your: таны  [tany] Audio
His: түүний (тэр эрэгтэйн)  [tүүniĭ (kheer ekheegkheeĭn)] Audio Her: түүний (тэр эмэгтэйн)  [tүүniĭ (kheer ekheegkheeĭn)] Audio
Our: бидний  [bidniĭ] Audio Their: тэдний  [kheedniĭ] Audio

Grammar in a sentence

Some random verbs to show how it's being used:

I speak English: би англи хэлээр ярьдаг  [bi angli kheekhekheer yarʹdag] Audio
You speak French: та франц хэлээр ярьдаг  [ta frants kheekhekheer yarʹdag] Audio
He speaks German: тэр эрэгтэй герман хэлээр ярьдаг  [kheer ekheegkheeĭ german kheekhekheer yarʹdag] Audio
She speaks Italian: тэр эмэгтэй итали хэлээр ярьдаг  [kheer ekheegkheeĭ itali kheekhekheer yarʹdag] Audio
I visited France: би францд аялсан  [bi frantsd ayalsan] Audio
I will drink milk: би сүү ууна  [bi sүү uuna] Audio


Some extra grammatical structures:

I understand you: би таныг ойлгож байна  [bi tanyg oĭlgozh baĭna] Audio
I don't understand you: би таныг ойлгохгүй байна  [bi tanyg oĭlgokhgүĭ baĭna] Audio
I don't speak French: би франц хэлээр ярьдаггүй  [bi frants kheekhekheer yarʹdaggүĭ] Audio
This is my house: энэ бол миний байшин  [ekhee bol miniĭ baĭshin] Audio
That restaurant is far: тэр ресторан бол хол  [kheer restoran bol khol] Audio
No problem: зүгээр зүгээр  [zүgkheer zүgkheer] Audio

The above Mongolian grammar can provide tools to use in coordination with the Mongolian vocabulary to obtain some popular Mongolian phrases.

Mongolian Phrases

Mongolian Vocabulary


Did you know? Grammar can help you increase your vocabulary dramatically. Grammar is like a tool which helps you manipulate words in a sentence by changing the shape and location of a word to create something new out of the old one.