Mongolian Grammar

The Mongolian grammar allows you to manipulate the vocabulary to obtain multiple forms of a word. The grammatical rules below are the most important in Mongolian and help connect words or shape the structure. We start with the prepositions:

And: ба, болон  [ba, bolon] Audio Under: доор  [door] Audio
Before: өмнө   [өmnө] Audio After: дараа  [daraa] Audio
Inside: дотор  [dotor] Audio Outside: гадна  [gadna] Audio
With: -тай  [ -taĭ] Audio But: гэхдээ  [gekhdkhee] Audio
For:   [ -d] Audio From: -аас  [ -aas] Audio
To: рүү  [rүү] Audio In: дотор  [dotor] Audio

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Questions and Adverbs

To ask questions, use the following:

What?: юу?  [yuu?] Audio Who?: хэн?  [kheen?] Audio
How?: хэрхэн?  [kheerkheen?] Audio Why?: яагаад?  [yaagaad?] Audio
Where?: хаана?  [khaana?] Audio

Some of the most important time adverbs:

Never: хэзээ ч  [kheezkhee ch] Audio Rarely: цөөхөн  [tsөөkhөn] Audio
Sometimes: хааяа  [khaayaa] Audio Usually: ихэвчлэн  [ikheevchkheen] Audio
Always: үргэлж  [үrgelzh] Audio Very: маш, их  [mash, ikh] Audio

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Most commonly used pronouns in Mongolian:

I: би  [bi] Audio You: та  [ta] Audio
He: тэр (эрэгтэй)  [kheer (ekheegkheeĭ)] Audio She: тэр (эмэгтэй)  [kheer (ekheegkheeĭ)] Audio
We: бид  [bid] Audio They: тэд  [kheed] Audio

To express the possession of something [possessive form]:

My: миний  [miniĭ] Audio Your: таны  [tany] Audio
His: түүний (тэр эрэгтэйн)  [tүүniĭ (kheer ekheegkheeĭn)] Audio Her: түүний (тэр эмэгтэйн)  [tүүniĭ (kheer ekheegkheeĭn)] Audio
Our: бидний  [bidniĭ] Audio Their: тэдний  [kheedniĭ] Audio

Grammar in a sentence

Some random verbs to show how it's being used:

I speak English: би англи хэлээр ярьдаг  [bi angli kheekhekheer yarʹdag] Audio
You speak French: та франц хэлээр ярьдаг  [ta frants kheekhekheer yarʹdag] Audio
He speaks German: тэр эрэгтэй герман хэлээр ярьдаг  [kheer ekheegkheeĭ german kheekhekheer yarʹdag] Audio
She speaks Italian: тэр эмэгтэй итали хэлээр ярьдаг  [kheer ekheegkheeĭ itali kheekhekheer yarʹdag] Audio
I visited France: би францд аялсан  [bi frantsd ayalsan] Audio
I will drink milk: би сүү ууна  [bi sүү uuna] Audio


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Some extra grammatical structures:

I understand you: би таныг ойлгож байна  [bi tanyg oĭlgozh baĭna] Audio
I don't understand you: би таныг ойлгохгүй байна  [bi tanyg oĭlgokhgүĭ baĭna] Audio
I don't speak French: би франц хэлээр ярьдаггүй  [bi frants kheekhekheer yarʹdaggүĭ] Audio
This is my house: энэ бол миний байшин  [ekhee bol miniĭ baĭshin] Audio
That restaurant is far: тэр ресторан бол хол  [kheer restoran bol khol] Audio
No problem: зүгээр зүгээр  [zүgkheer zүgkheer] Audio

The above Mongolian grammar can provide tools to use in coordination with the Mongolian vocabulary to obtain some popular Mongolian phrases.

Mongolian Phrases

Mongolian Vocabulary


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Did you know? Grammar can help you increase your vocabulary dramatically. Grammar is like a tool which helps you manipulate words in a sentence by changing the shape and location of a word to create something new out of the old one.