Xhosa Grammar

The Xhosa grammar allows you to manipulate the vocabulary to obtain multiple forms of a word. The grammatical rules below are the most important in Xhosa and help connect words or shape the structure. We start with the prepositions:

And: futhi  Audio Under: ngaphantsi  Audio
Before: ngaphambi  Audio After: emva  Audio
Inside: ngaphakathi  Audio Outside: ngaphandle  Audio
With: kunye  Audio But: kodwa  Audio
For: ye  Audio From: suka  Audio
To: kuya  Audio In: phakathi  Audio

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To ask questions, use the following:

What?: intoni?  Audio Who?: ubani?  Audio
How?: njani?  Audio Why?: ngoba?  Audio
Where?: phi?  Audio

Some of the most important time adverbs:

Never: soze  Audio Rarely: hayi rhoqo  Audio
Sometimes: ngamanye amaxesha  Audio Usually: uqhele  Audio
Always: soloko  Audio Very: kakhulu  Audio

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Most commonly used pronouns in Xhosa:

I: mna  Audio You: wena  Audio
He: yena  Audio She: yena  Audio
We: thina  Audio They: bona  Audio

To express the possession of something [possessive form]:

My: eyam  Audio Your: yakho  Audio
His: yakhe  Audio Her: yena  Audio
Our: yethu  Audio Their: yabo  Audio

Some random verbs to show how it's being used:

I speak English: ndithetha isingesi  Audio
You speak French: uthetha isiFrench  Audio
He speaks German: Uthetha isiJamani  Audio
She speaks Italian: Uthetha isinTaliyane  Audio
I visited France: ndityelele eFrance  Audio
I will drink milk: ndizosela ubisi  Audio


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Some extra grammatical structures:

I understand you: Ndiyakuva  Audio
I don't understand you: Andikuva kakuhla  Audio
I don't speak French: andithethi isifrench  Audio
This is my house: yindlu yam   Audio
That restaurant is far: landawo yokutyela ikude  Audio
No problem: akhongxaki  Audio

The above Xhosa grammar can provide tools to use in coordination with the Xhosa vocabulary to obtain some popular Xhosa phrases.

Xhosa Phrases

Xhosa Vocabulary


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Did you know? Grammar can help you increase your vocabulary dramatically. Grammar is like a tool which helps you manipulate words in a sentence by changing the shape and location of a word to create something new out of the old one.