Xhosa Grammar

The Xhosa grammar allows you to manipulate the vocabulary to obtain multiple forms of a word. The grammatical rules below are the most important in Xhosa and help connect words or shape the structure. We start with the prepositions:

And: futhi  Audio Under: ngaphantsi  Audio
Before: ngaphambi  Audio After: emva  Audio
Inside: ngaphakathi  Audio Outside: ngaphandle  Audio
With: kunye  Audio But: kodwa  Audio
For: ye  Audio From: suka  Audio
To: kuya  Audio In: phakathi  Audio


Questions and Adverbs

To ask questions, use the following:

What?: intoni?  Audio Who?: ubani?  Audio
How?: njani?  Audio Why?: ngoba?  Audio
Where?: phi?  Audio

Some of the most important time adverbs:

Never: soze  Audio Rarely: hayi rhoqo  Audio
Sometimes: ngamanye amaxesha  Audio Usually: uqhele  Audio
Always: soloko  Audio Very: kakhulu  Audio


Most commonly used pronouns in Xhosa:

I: mna  Audio You: wena  Audio
He: yena  Audio She: yena  Audio
We: thina  Audio They: bona  Audio

To express the possession of something [possessive form]:

My: eyam  Audio Your: yakho  Audio
His: yakhe  Audio Her: yena  Audio
Our: yethu  Audio Their: yabo  Audio

Grammar in a sentence

Some random verbs to show how it's being used:

I speak English: ndithetha isingesi  Audio
You speak French: uthetha isiFrench  Audio
He speaks German: Uthetha isiJamani  Audio
She speaks Italian: Uthetha isinTaliyane  Audio
I visited France: ndityelele eFrance  Audio
I will drink milk: ndizosela ubisi  Audio


Some extra grammatical structures:

I understand you: Ndiyakuva  Audio
I don't understand you: Andikuva kakuhla  Audio
I don't speak French: andithethi isifrench  Audio
This is my house: yindlu yam   Audio
That restaurant is far: landawo yokutyela ikude  Audio
No problem: akhongxaki  Audio

The above Xhosa grammar can provide tools to use in coordination with the Xhosa vocabulary to obtain some popular Xhosa phrases.

Xhosa Phrases

Xhosa Vocabulary


Did you know? Grammar can help you increase your vocabulary dramatically. Grammar is like a tool which helps you manipulate words in a sentence by changing the shape and location of a word to create something new out of the old one.